Learn about they thyroid gland disorders, quickly & easily. You will find information to help you understand: Goiters, Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid Cancer and More - Including Signs and Symptoms. This videos is to help you on your nursing journey.
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Rizalyn Joy Gadugdug
Maria Salvacion Gonzales
The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck. This gland secretes hormones
that govern many of the functions in the body, such as the way the body uses energy,
consumes oxygen and produces heat. Thyroid disorders typically occur when this
gland releases too many or too few hormones. An overactive or underactive thyroid
can lead to a wide range of health problems.
Hyperthyroidism: Remember, whenever you see: HYPER infront of a word - this means too
Hyperthyroidism - this is when the thyroid gland is producing too much thyroid hormone.
Causes: There are several causes of hyperthyroidism. Most often, the entire gland is
overproducing thyroid hormone. Less commonly, a single nodule is responsible for
the excess hormone secretion.
The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves disease - this is an autoimmune disease
where the body makes an antibody called thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin, this causes the
thyroid gland to make too much thyroid hormone.
Thyroiditis - can be another cause, this is inflammation of the thyroid. Remember whenever you
see the words “itis”at the end of a word, this means infection.
Functional thyroid tissue producing an excess of thyroid hormone occurs in a number of clinical
Hyperthyroidism may be asymptomatic or present with significant symptoms. a mnemonic to
help you remember the potential symptoms of hyperthyroidism is SWEATING.
The signs and symptoms can include:
Sweating, Weight loss, Emotional
instability, Appetite increased, Tremor, Irritability, Nervousness, Gastrointestinal
More frequent bowel movements may occur, but diarrhea is uncommon.
Treatment for hyperthyroidism usually involves medication to reduce the amount of
hormones produced by the thyroid. We will go over the medical treatments in a bit.
Hypothyroidism - which is also called myxedema
Remember - whenever you see: Hypo in front of a word, this means “not enough of.”
Hypothyroidism is a thyroid disorder that occurs when the thyroid does not produce
enough hormones, which is the opposite of hyperthyroidism.
People with hypothyroidism often have no or only mild symptoms. Numerous
symptoms and signs are associated with hypothyroidism, and can be related to the
underlying cause, or a direct effect of having not enough thyroid hormones.
Some of the symptoms of hypothyroidism can be easily remembered by the mnemonic MOM’S
TIRED which includes:
Menorrhagia - which means abnormally heavy bleeding at menstruation,
Intolerance to cold,
Energy levels are low
This condition can be treated using a drug called T4. Most patients must stay on T4
for their entire lives, and must be closely monitored by physicians. T4 is the synthetic form of
the thyroid stimulating hormone - It is made by many different pharmaceutical companies, sold
under names like: Synthroid, Levothyroxine Sodium and Levoxyl to name a few.
Causes: Most of the time Hypothyroidism is caused by inadequate function of the gland itself
which is known as primary hypothyroidism. It could be caused by not enough stimulation by
thyroid-stimulating hormone - which is known as central hypothyroidism.
Primary hypothyroidism is much more common than central hypothyroidism.
Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of
In areas of the world with sufficient dietary iodine, hypothyroidism is most commonly caused by
the autoimmune disease Hashimoto's thyroiditis.