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In this video you state that the "Thalamus" is always in inhibition. However, in your indirect pathways and your PD video. You state that the thalamus is always excited like a dog.
So which is it? always in inhibition or excitation?
Hello, In a resting person, the THALAMUS is under constant inhibition from the GLOBUS PALLIDUS. (To prevent it from sending a signal to the cortex thus avoiding making an unnecessary movement). When one wants to make a movement however, this inhibition is cut off.
additional: the thalamus does not need an activation signal. All it needs is for the inhibition signal to be cut off, his is because, it is always ready to fire if not inhibited. (thus is why she said it is always active) I hope this helps. good luck with your studies.
What is the name of the excitatory neurotransmitter that goes from the subthalamic nucleus to the substantia nigra? Is it Glu or Dop or something different? Also coming back is it gaba? It would be very helpful if you included all neurotransmitters in the future. : ) LOVE your work! I don't know if you work in connectomics much regarding the 3 types of learning in real time....(physical structure of content, history of content and real time experience of content) I think your mother type voice regulates students making it easy to learn...lol....I know it sounds crazy but I think there is some truth to this. I found it much easier to learn from your videos....I believe I already have circuits in place that recognize the soft tone of your voice....from -9 months to 8 years old my mom had a very gentle tone as I imagine most moms do. Anyway, the point is when we are regulated it is much easier to learn. : )
I thought that striatum inhibits globus pallidus (ext), that inhibits globus pallidus (int), therefore the striatum activate the global pallidus (int). Can someone explain this to me? I'm very confused now.
+Lucas Prust Sorry if this is too late, but you appear to have slightly mixed up the indirect and direct pathways of the basal ganglia. The direct pathway was outlined correctly in the video; the indirect pathway DOES involve the striatum inhibiting GPe, but GPe inhibits the subthalamic nucleus (NOT GPi) which normally activates GPi indirect inhibition of GPi). This consecutive inhibition acts as an activator, and upregulates GPi inhibition of the thalamus. The overall effect of this pathway is inhibition of movement. However, D2 (dopamine 2) input to the striatum actually inhibits this pathway, leading to decreased inhibition of the thalamus (usually translating to increased movement).
Antidepressants are medications that can help relieve symptoms of depression, social anxiety disorder, anxiety disorders, seasonal affective disorder, and dysthymia, or mild chronic depression, as well as other conditions.
They aim to correct chemical imbalances of neurotransmitters in the brain that are believed to be responsible for changes in mood and behavior.
Depression Medications (Antidepressants)
These are the most commonly prescribed type of antidepressant.
Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are used to treat major depression, mood disorders, and possibly but less commonly attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders, menopausal symptoms, fibromyalgia, and chronic neuropathic pain.
SNRIs raise levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, two neurotransmitters in the brain that play a key role in stabilizing mood.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants. They are effective in treating depression, and they have fewer side effects than the other antidepressants.
SSRIs block the reuptake, or absorption, of serotonin in the brain. This makes it easier for the brain cells to receive and send messages, resulting in better and more stable moods.
They are called "selective" because they mainly seem to affect serotonin, and not the other neurotransmitters.