NOTE FROM TED: This talk, which was filmed at a TEDx event, contains assertions about treating depression based on the speaker's own theory. While some viewers might find the prescriptions to be helpful, please do not look to this talk for medical advice. TEDx events are independently organized by volunteers. The guidelines we give TEDx organizers are described in more detail here: http://storage.ted.com/tedx/manuals/tedx_content_guidelines.pdf
Dr. Heitler discusses a treatment for situational depression (even when we don't know it is situational!) WITHOUT psychopharmacology. Instead, she offers three prescriptions without pills, outlining these prescriptions using an example from her practice. She shows how investigating what makes us angry or upset can help us to re-empower ourselves, and our mental health.
Susan Heitler, Ph.D., a Harvard and NYU-educated clinical psychologist, writes a Psychology Today blog that has received over 7.5 million reads.
Dr. Heitler first earned recognition when her book From Conflict to Resolution brought understandings of collaborative conflict resolution from the world of legal and business mediation to the practice of psychotherapy.
Her Power of Two and Power of Two Workbook– published in six foreign language editions–plus her interactive marriage education website PowerOfTwoMarriage.com, teach the communication skills for marriage success.
Dr. Heitler’s most recent book and website combo, Prescriptions Without Pills, offers self-help versions of the techniques she uses in her clinical practice–techniques for relieving depression, anger, and anxiety plus strategies for sustaining well-being.
This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx
You will read a great deal of fact ideas on this treatment “fetching kafon press” (Google it) which is also easy to understand. I now volunteer at a shelter and the enjoyment I get from aiding other folks. Before I read through it I sensed as if I was in a bottomless pit with no way out. I had been taking antidepressants for nearly 3 years and had shut myself away from the world..
Walking in the sun, Does not help, I have a serotonin deficiency. So I am not sad. I have a brain illness. How do I help myself without meds. She seems nice, but I am on a serious road here. She is on a 5150 train.
You will read a great deal of fact concepts on this remedy “fetching kafon press” (Google it) which is also easy to understand. After the healing process, I decided to volunteer at a shelter and I couldn’t be more happy than helping other folks. Before I read it I sensed as if I was in a bottomless hole with no exit. I never wished to go out and speak with people for years and been consuming antidepressants to cure depression..
Hog wash! Anti depressants hurt all who use them. All get neg side affects. Depression at time during a dull lifetime is part of life, growing + maturing. Unless born with brain deficiency or damage at birth or during life, just gotta get theu it over it around it. Jesus is the best pill at all times, for all things. Give Him a try.
I have suffered from life-threatening depression on and off during my life. If I had known about these techniques from childhood I don't think I would have suffered from depression it wouldn't have got that bad . So I think what this lady has to say is simple but very worthwhile, and I thank her very much for saying it
Excellent question. In general, we get more of what we focus on. If you focus on what you like about someone, you will feel more positive about them. If you focus on what you are pleased about in your life, you will do more of it.
Here's an example. If a parent focuses on what the children are doing wrong, pointing these negatives out at every opportunity, they will get more of them. If they "catch the kids doing something right" and verbalize what they like, they will get more of that.
At the same time, focusing on something bad like depression sometimes is a first step from breaking out of it. Once a person has locked into feeling small vis a vis a person or problem that is bothering them—which (as the talk explains) invites depression—identifying the specific trigger is a vital first step toward emergence out of the depressed state.
Your observation about having viewed this video at night when your depression tends to be worse is quite insightful though. Maybe do a fresh viewing of the talk at whatever time you are at your least depressed.
Thank you for sharing this insight!
I\'m not sure but ,if anyone else trying to find out getting over depression try Vaxicorn Depression Remover Guide (should be on google have a look ) ? Ive heard some interesting things about it and my friend got great results with it.
There are multiple ways of treating depression. It is a layered effect. The first thing doctors do nowdays is pump us full of medications and if they don't work, change the dose or prescription. It is a learning curve to see what works for you. So why knock her take on trying something different.
YES! Warmest thanks for this encouragement to folks with regard to the reality that there genuinely are many routes out of depression. The technique in this talk is especially easy to try, with or without the help of a friend or therapist. For more ideas, see my blogpost on psychologytoday on new options for treatment-resistant depression.
Thank you again for sharing your response!
No and yes. "Just pick yourself up" is generally unrealistic as well as unsympathetic advice. When you feel depressed, your internal subjective sense of personal power is often too low to just mobilize and get on with life.
At the same time, situational depression is not an illness in the sense that we usually think of illness, that is, a biochemical or organ problem. Though your biochemistry does change, the problem is a problem in living rather than a disease. Solve the problem with the three steps in this visualization and your biochemical state goes back to normal.
There are also depressions that are more profound, more long-lasting, and a reaction to a biochemical problem rather than a situational trigger. These depressions do fit the medical model of illness. In these instances medications can be hugely helpful.
Thank your for sharing your reaction. The concerns you wrote I'm sure others have had as well.
I like the calm way you descibe things. You also validate a person's pain, and reality....allowing them to feel their emotions, not numb them. And the "multiple choice" approach to problem solving, is very empowering too....it allows flexibility, and creativity, not just dictating a single solution...ie. " Do this/take this, and all will be well"......and when it doesn't work...that person is left, even more depressed. Your technique inspires people, to look beyond their limitations...an "Eagle eye view". Thank you.
Interestingly, when a depressed person is not consciously aware of feeling irritated or angry at someone or something, closing eyes and allowing the image to bubble up often yields surprisingly clarifying results.
Still, there definitely are times when nothing comes up on the depressed person's visual screen. In this case, this response can be diagnostic, suggesting several possibilities.
One is that the depression is solely biological, as for instance when the depression is a reaction to a medication.
Another possibility is that the depression is the by-product of a medical procedure. Depression, for instance, is a common post-cardiac-surgery reaction. Some say these depressions occur in response to a severing of something in the midline as part of the surgery.
In sum, if a visualization of "whom or what, other than yourself, you might be mad at..." is yielding no clues, that can be a sign to look for biological causes.
Good question. Thanks for writing in.
Hands down the worst TED talk I’ve heard. Moreover, the most skewed attempt at describing depression. On top of it, her speech impediment is annoying. I can’t continue because I will become increasingly angry.
She's confusing a bad ride on a horse with being dragged by the stirrups through the sagebrush. Triggers are a bump from past trauma not something to have our horse just hop over. Most of the time the horse just doesn't really care about any bumps and the horse is so strong that it doesn't know or care if our heads are being bumped across the rocks and through the bushes. However, not personalizing or exasperating after a recognized trigger has arisen is very wise. Having a numb head from too much anesthesia from medication isn't a good idea either. It's a complex issue and recognizing a trigger is a good way to recover quickly and not over react. -Not medical advise just my opinion.- In our culture this is so common now with all of the over-stimulation that hearing others talk about triggers is very healing. It's a human condition now for all of us; clinically depressed or not.
It does seem to be confusing to many that the term depression is used clinically to refer both to lower intensity situational reactions such as I address in this talk, and to high intensity major depressive episodes for which I explicitly say that medications are appropriate.
In any case, I appreciate your sharing that you found this visualization for finding triggers for depressive reactions helpful.
Thanks for writing in to share your thoughts.
She makes it sound so very simple, the answer wrapped up in a Ted Talk handy for your purse or your pocket. Her analogy for the common cold sums it up. If you suffer something more serious this won't help.
I read most of the comments before watching the video and I am shocked after watching this video how many people are complaining and sounding so bloody ungrateful for such great advice.. I agree with all that she is saying. I was diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder Type 1 three years ago and I do not take any meds because I feel numb just as she is describing it and I am surprised to hear someone in the medical field discredit anti-depressants because in my country if you aren't taking your meds they scold you and act as if you have committed a major crime! I followed along the video pretending that I was Julie just to see where it goes, and I was surprised that I too did not see my significant other, whom I have been having alt of outbursts and anger, I also saw the people in my life looking very big in my mind and realised that I too speak like a child when I am attempting to get my point across, and I need not boast that I am the most educated in the room of these people, yet I do not get any chance to speak and my points get thrown under the bus, I realised that this woman knows what she is talking about. Depression to me has always felt like bumps in my road, I know only after I have overcome it that I was totally out of touch with reality, every day there is a constant battle for my mind. I recently drank a certain amt of alcohol in one day and found my mind clearer than it has been for weeks. I felt relieved!!! Yet I do not want to abuse alcohol at all, I search for ways to control myself with my issues, at first I had to realize that I had an issue, then I had to learn how to help myself. For a population of over 500,000 in the area of my country where I live, there is only one Psychologist...publicly that is, the cost of living is very high, and every day it seems to get higher, my mission is to stick to something that I love to do and make money from it so that I would be able to maintain myself for the rest of my life comfortably without the help of a man..I cannot do anything I love when I am on meds... My mind is like a brick wall and I cant even hear my own voice in my head.. therfore I can't write music or even sing, worst write a poem or short story, so I don't believe that this lady doesnt know what she is talking about, I came here from her page on relationships to a video from it and now I am here and I don't mind paying for her book now, as I know that if it has more doable things that I can recognise that would help me to overcome the stumbling blocks in my life, then it would be worth it, I definitely don't want any medication ruling my life..as the side effects are nothing short of debilitating..
Warmest thanks for taking the time to write your response to this talk.
I also do not understand where the harsh negative comments come from. Depression does bring negative thinking. Beck's cognitive triad of negative thoughts about self, others, and the future could be at work.
At the same time, almost all the negative comments are without actual content--just personal attacks or name-calling. They also ignore that I say explicitly at the outset of the talk that this is for everyday depressive reactions, not entrenched major depressive episodes. All of which makes me think it's just trolls writing in.
In any case, the negative comments make me all the more appreciative when folks like you write in thoughtful and appreciative comments such as yours. Again, thank you!
I still remember the time when I got myself out of depression months ago thanks to this depression treatment method “fetching kafon press” (Google it). I was so broken hearted that time wherein I always think of negative things in life and feels as though I am always alone. I feel a sense of relief today because I wish to become better and I am shifting towards the right course.
Brilliant presentation and prescription for those who are facing situational depression, facing problems, bother them, if following her 3 steps will help them. While those suffer due to physical, or mental reasons this 3 steps might be of little help.
Depression truly made my life so miserable before for three years. I was very sad like everyday I want to to pass away. After adhering to this depression treatment “fetching kafon press” (Google it), it did not only help me to take charge of my life once more, it also helped me lose 44 pounds!
The negative comments seem to me to be odd, and to be quite sad in the harm they do. The technique is potentially helpful to many people.
I have used the 3 P's visualization for many years in my clinical practice, with excellent results. I have taught it to other therapists in continuing education programs around the globe. My book From Conflict to Resolution, where I first wrote about the technique, received excellent reviews in multiple professional journals. In the psychotherapy world, this technique and my other contributions as well are widely well-received.
The many undeserved negative comments, including the one from TEDx, do a serious disservice in discouraging depression sufferers who could benefit from the technique from viewing the video and from trusting it.
I have severe depression with suicidal tendency's and Im sorry but she's wrong.
Only unconditional love help's with depression., something i have never been able to find except from my dog. This says a lot about the way technology has made it hard to actually speak to other people.
And as soon as you bring your illnesses to the table nobody wants to be around you. You have to keep it a secret in order to fit in.
I've been like this since childhood from never told one time I was loved and was abused. Ill just stay by myself and play with my pet's., they love me.
Depression is more than “a bump in the road.” This is horrible. My wife died, I quit my job, and I moved. I have been in a depressed fog for several years. This person can take her “bump in the road” talk and cram it where the sun does not shine.
I think Julie doesn't understand that men compete with each other in a hierarchy and tend to allow the Alpha to speak the most while having those who can contribute do so at the proper time. If she finds her proper place in the meeting room then she will not only find that they will be heard more often, but she will also find more confidence in the process. Usually depression comes with expectations that don't meet reality.
Susan Heitler. I have the belief that the medical profession does not put enough emphasis on diet. Just for thought > better physical and mental health because of nutritional excellence. I have the belief that the industrialised
diet creates more sadness.
You are correct that asking what is making you upset does not work. That's why the question for pinpointing the depressive trigger is about toward whom or what you might feel angry.
This technique is specific to treatment of depression. You are right that in some cases it may also identify a source of stress. Stress however is more often associated with anxiety.
Please see my prescriptionswithoutpills or my watchpsychotherapy websites for information about visualization treatments for emotional states other than depression. Also, see the book, Prescriptions Without Pills.
I know a woman who was in depression she was trying to kill herself.. after multiple treatment she is now living a healthy life with family.. without treatment it was not possible..all the time one person was living with her.
Juli problem was very little .. maybe it can be cured by this method but in this whole world very very big tragedies come in the life..its so necessary to take pills to make mind a bit relax as example sudden accident death and all family members die only one woman left who was totally dependent on husband..she lost kids husband brother parents.. I am not convinced from this talk
Loved the speech. I just went thru a situation where we got this amazing house and couldn’t understand why I wasn’t happy... everybody was telling me I should be!!! The more I was told I should be happy and grateful the more miserable I felt... It just didn’t feel like a home.... Now I know why... it wasn’t a house I really chose, it was almost imposed by my husband and by the expectations of society... and, instead of happy, now I know, it just made me feel small. It’s on the market and we got this lovely and simple half the size house with a gorgeous garden. The first night I felt more at home than at the other house in a year... I wish I had heard this long ago... God bless!
The term depression is over used or used incorrectly
I see depression levels on a continuum one side sadness the other serious clinical depression . This video is only really speaking to the sadness type of depression and not clinical depression .
Actually, while people who are mildly depressed may feel sad, many do not. The most prominent sign of depression is uncharacteristically negative thinking. Also, lower than normal energy is particularly common, especially low on enthusiasm or motivation for doing things that normally would feel appealing.
I agree that depression exists on a continuum from mild to moderate to major.
Mild depression may included or be related to sadness. At the same time, sadness stems only from loss, whereas depression includes a component of anger at not having gotten, or having lost, something you want.
As to what you are referring to as "clinical depression," a particularly intense depression is diagnosed as a major depressive disorder.
Sadness is a response to a loss, that is, a grief reaction. Depression is, as Karl Abraham long ago clarified, "anger turned inward." The technique illustrated in the video and explained in more detail in my book and website both called Prescriptions Without Pills works effectively with both mild and moderate depressive reactions.
I have been a therapist for over 40 years. I have been using this technique as a central part of treatment for mild and moderate depressive reactions for several decades. I have also taught it to therapists across the US and globally; they also express finding it highly useful. No one technique is the whole of treatment, obviously, but this one can create a turning point.
That is not addressing clinical depression at all. Clinical depression is a far deeper more painful loss of every pleasure. Not able to believe you ever will feel again.
Talk is not going to work..only addressing the biological cause will. Its a chemical imbalance.. talk doesnt fix that.
Depression itself complicates bad moods into a downward spiral, it is highly intelligent and tricky that kinda get you cornered no matter what you try to do. But depression is a part of you, which means you are actually fighting against yourself. The intelligence depression displays by caging you in, is the same intelligence YOU own by trying to avoid future pain and suffering. So if you can get into depression, you can get out of it for sure. Knowing how to not let in negative self talk and knowing that depression is a natural defensive mechanism is important, because only then can you detach yourself from it. Depression is not you, it is a symptom of fear. It does not speak for you nor does it represent who you are as a person.
This kind of name-calling and personal attack is totally unprofessional. I do not believe that you are a therapist. And if you are, you are, your license could be brought into question. This kind of comment is not acting in accord with the ethics of our profession.
Rule of thumb for addressing depression publicly. It's very possible that a suicidal person will look up 'depression help' and find your material. Are you saying anything that would help them? If not, consider using a word other than 'depression' for your advice. Discouragement. Setbacks. Low mood. Dysthymia. Something to acknowledge that you're not trying to address a desperate person standing on a ledge. Because if a desperate person looks for help and finds this anecdote about a woman who feels down about her sexist co-workers and just needs a little visualization exercise to feel better... that desperate person is just going to feel dismissed and diminished by what seems like a trivialization of their problems.
I'm sorry the speaker got hit with a lot of negativity, but depression is a disease that makes people feel negative and hopeless. This title beckons negative and hopeless people to listen, and then talks about a completely different kind of problem. Of course desperate, hopeless, negative people are sometimes unkind in their responses.
The "Bump"? Is she kidding. Your life can be going PERFECT and Real depression does not discriminate, you could win a million dollars and marry a movie star etc etc and it is all encompassing. Wow, is she really in practice? I Do know that Excersize, healthy eating, etc. Can really help improve depression but not if you can not get yourself out of bed? I would laugh if it wasn't so serious
For major depressive episodes, medication is generally appropriate. If that does not work, then there are other options as well. The technique in this talk is appropriate primarily for mild to moderate intensity depression.
I really don't see how this could help in a *MAJOR* depressive episode. She needs to clarify the types of depression which would help with her advice. It's dangerous to advise this for a major depressive person, especially someone who has had it for a long time.
This technique is intended for the common cold version of depression, that is, mild to moderate depression levels. It is not intended to be a treatment for major depressive episodes. Medication is generally an important option in these cases.
Nah this is a rather poor talk IMO and is really only helpful for confidence issues. Firstly the woman she refers to 'Julie' if she suffered from moderate to severe depression wouldn't be holding a job down, would find it difficult facing people on many occasions quite possibly every other day. Julie would be spending many a day just sitting around the house and that's if she was able to get herself out of bed. It's very easy for someone to give a talk like this but her theories dont add up towards with helping someone suffering from major depression, it's easy to give explanations like this but useless in reality. It could work for people trying to build up their confidence, that's it.
Nice video content! Apologies for butting in, I am interested in your initial thoughts. Have you heard about - Lammywalness Erase Depression Guide (Sure I saw it on Google)? It is a great exclusive guide for beating depression fast minus the normal expense. Ive heard some amazing things about it and my BF at very last got astronomical success with it.
I don't think she has been really depressed. I also think it is not accurate to tag the video with a statement that these 3 things will lift depression. It's misleading and not true for everyone. Actually, depression is damn serious, not a little story.
You are correct that severe depressive episodes need significantly more in the way of treatment, including medication, than one visualization exercise. At the same time, for milder depressive episodes, which are the most common form of depression, this exercise can give people the self-understanding plus the internal re-empowerment to be able to improve their situation significantly.
I hate British people. They are bastards when they don't want to pay your self employed business. People have things done then they don't want to pay. Try doing this at a supermarket, they won't let you leave the store. They are the worst breed on the planet.
Thank you Susan for solving one of the biggest problem that was holding me down. I was thinking there must be easier and simpler ways to get over these bad cycles of depression and there you go. This is one of the ways that helps. There are other non-chemical and enlightening ways that helps in the long run. Thank you so much for bringing out one. I am going to share this video with people I know who need this right now.
How to make sure someone who needs help, feels awful and 'wrong' for going to anyone to report depression. Don't go to your Dr., don't take a pill that DOESN:T NUMB YOU, they allow you to experience joy again. If antidepressants numbed people, they would be 'empty' inside. again, another sign of depression. As someone in the mental health profession, you should be ashamed of yourself. Telling anyone to not see a medical professional when they are depressed is irresponsible. And people who watch this and take it to heart, and don't get the help they need medically to stabilize themselves to even be able to call a therapist, or handle facing issues at all, some of them will die. Tell them at their grave they need to not go to a medical professional, a parent, a psychiatrist, anyone to report it. alot of people can't go to therapy do to cost, locations, availability, stigma, shame, biased opinions, fear... those people need help, not someone to tell them to not worry about it, and save up for a therapist. You're insane and negligent and far from a professional in mental health. You don't get depression, and i assume you never have experienced that or medications effects on what is a horrible existance for many of us... shame on you. this is dangerous for people. And i hope you own the possibility of someone giving up because they didn't want to reach out, cuz you say its wrong and can't get treatment for a million reasons in talk therapy. i hope you stop treating people soon. you don't deserve to call yourself 'help.
This comment inaccurately reports what I say in the talk. I explicitly state that antidepressants are lifesavers for people with deep depression or depressive tendencies that are not helped by non-medication treatment methods.
Most depression is of mild to moderate intensity. Like the common cold, these depressed states can be treated with techniques such as the one I explain in this article.
Major depressive episodes are altogether different. I agree with you that these need medical and medication treatment.
You started your lecture, "Deppression, all of us sometimes feel down, psychologists like myself often refer to deppression as the common cold of mental illness". You also later claim that what antideppressants do is numb you.
You're really a psychologist? Yet you think deppression is that down feeling we all get sometimes????? I have been on a huge list of different antidepppressants through my life because I was diagnosed at 16 with major deppressive disorder and I am now 35 an d not one of them made me numb. I cry, feel intense emotion from the whole range of emotions that you can have, I am the ooposite of numb to my feelings , they are to intense for me to handle- the opposite of numb. Lastly I found it dismissive of what we with this serious mental illnes that claims lives by likening it to the the common cold. The common cold does not make me people self harm or kill themselves .
Depression is most common in its milder forms. It is most dreadful however in the kind of intense forms such as you describe. Both go by the same term, just as a cute little cuddly dog and a large vicious and dangerous dog both are dogs. At the same time, my heart goes out to you. Severe treatment-resistant depression is terribly debilitating.
Sounds like your depression is mixed with anger. Very difficult. Hopefully new cures are on the horizon. May one come soon for you.
I’m having a depression . Sleeping is one of the biggest problem . I have a hard time to fall sleep and stay sleep.or woke up tired. I’m have been seeing a doctor in the pass few year. And taking medications as he has had decried But still have a issue with sleeping. Any suggestions or methods that I can physically do to have a deep and healthy sleep .? Please be advise.thank you so much.
There is a device called Resperate (I think it used to be called 2breathe). That could be worth trying. You can find it online. I like this device because even if it doesn't put you into a full sleep, it keeps you in a restful meditative state.
Other than that, I would just encourage you to get a thorough workup if you can from a good sleep clinic. That's a specialty area within medicine that most general docs have limited knowledge of.
I just wanted to thank Susan Heitler for the information that she provided in this video. The problem is that for someone like me who has been fighting severe depression for at least 30 years or more trying every prescription drug there is and then also Chronic migraines in which they never seem to stop… i’ve had ECT several times and the first time I had it done, it seem to work pretty good. I had ECT treatments probably maybe eight months ago and I noticed it really didn’t work as well as I thought it would. I’ve been in and out of hospitals and it’s always the same thing “ let’s try to adjust your meds and they send you out the door, not even knowing if you’re really feeling any better, so I finally told my doctors there was no need to put me in the hospital Anymore to just adjust my meds, there really isn’t any more adjusting they can do as of right now it’s just a waste time… or if I am suicidal they want you to go into the hospital and adjust your meds. This is just a little bit more complicated then what Susan is talking about. Believe me if I could walk into my doctors office and have her suggest some of these things that Susan Was I would be so so happy because then my children and grand child wouldn’t have to watch me as they say “watch me die inside quote i’ve been able to wear many masks throughout the years and hold my depression pretty deep down until I just couldn’t do it anymore. That led to my first nervous break down. I guess what I’m getting at is there are so many people suffering and so many different ways from depression, major depression, that unfortunately Susan skills aren’t for all of us.
I agree. One thought: you might look at alternative treatment methods. Check out Emotion Code and Body Code, created by Bradley Nelson. If there are no practicioners in your area. you can work via Skype with one of the ones listed on their website. Also, have you tried acupuncture? The alternative options sometimes are remarkably effective.
Wishing you all the best. Do keep up your quest for a cure.
The common cold doesn't create suicidal statistics, depression devastates people, families, careers. The common cold doesn't.
People who compare the two as if they are equal in any way show their ignorance and insensitivity. Julie isn't depressed. Expanding her communication skills, intimidation subsides as she gains confidence. Practice speaking in less stressful situations will help her feel comfortable.
Julie would be attempting to dress or eat and dreading the amount of energy required to hear a Dr compare internal devastation to a cold if she was in depression. Learning better skills or pretend to puff up, which will help in the long run?. The Dr insured continual visits.
Look at data for health, longevity for Drs...? Conscience counts.
The common cold kills people when it goes into pneumonia.
Depression at all levels kills happiness. It tends to have negative impacts on relationships and on work performance as well as on personal low energy levels and negative thinking. In its severest forms, depression, like pneumonia, is lethal.
Severe depression generally starts with triggers that are the same in structure as milder depressive reactions. The reaction however is more intense, more debilitating, and longer-lasting, probably mainly because of biological vulnerability.
Antidepressants are medications that can help relieve symptoms of depression, social anxiety disorder, anxiety disorders, seasonal affective disorder, and dysthymia, or mild chronic depression, as well as other conditions.
They aim to correct chemical imbalances of neurotransmitters in the brain that are believed to be responsible for changes in mood and behavior.
Depression Medications (Antidepressants)
These are the most commonly prescribed type of antidepressant.
Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are used to treat major depression, mood disorders, and possibly but less commonly attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders, menopausal symptoms, fibromyalgia, and chronic neuropathic pain.
SNRIs raise levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, two neurotransmitters in the brain that play a key role in stabilizing mood.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants. They are effective in treating depression, and they have fewer side effects than the other antidepressants.
SSRIs block the reuptake, or absorption, of serotonin in the brain. This makes it easier for the brain cells to receive and send messages, resulting in better and more stable moods.
They are called "selective" because they mainly seem to affect serotonin, and not the other neurotransmitters.