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Early embryogenesis - Cleavage, blastulation, gastrulation, and neurulation | MCAT | Khan Academy

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Created by Jeff Otjen. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/behavior/human-development/v/implantation?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/behavior/human-development/v/egg-sperm-and-fertilization?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
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Текстовые комментарии (234)
nizam yuki (8 дней назад)
Thank you!
luisfobo (9 дней назад)
Does the embryo enter the uterus as a morula or a blastocyte?
sara abdalftah (11 дней назад)
Thnx alot ♥️
dunya abubakir (17 дней назад)
In love with this vedio😍
Gamblionic Development (1 месяц назад)
Where the fuck in my life am I going to use these information except my biology quiz which is tomorrow? (I won't use any fucking biology for my job)
Kiman Lally (1 месяц назад)
so do the embryoblasts become epiblasts?
Alyss Heart (2 месяца назад)
This video is so much better than the sleep-inducing 2 hours of embryology I had to suffer under my anatomy teacher.
Indi Noris (1 день назад)
Which university r u from ? Cuz I swear i live the exact same thing :)
dunya abubakir (2 месяца назад)
Quran Now (2 месяца назад)
Here is what makes it impossible for The Quran  to be authored by a 7th century illeterate arab ! : 1- WATER STRATIFICATION: Existence of barriers which slow & control the mixing between fresh  & salt water in the seas so that each water keeps its  characteristics & species: ''He has set free the two seas meeting together. There is a barrier  between them. They do not transgress (each other).'' (Quran, 55:19-20) ''He  is the one who has set free the two kinds of water, one sweet and  palatable, and the other salty and bitter. And He has made between them a  barrier and a forbidding partition.'' (Quran, 25:53) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratification_(water) http://www.amazon.com/Barrier-Zones-Ocean-Emelyan-Emelyanov/dp/3540253912 2- THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX:: The prefrontal cortex (the frontal part of the  brain) is responsible for making our decisions , manipulating , lying ,..etc Quran 96:15 ''Nay, if he(God's enemy) desist not, We shall most surely drag him down upon his forehead(in the judgement day) 96:16  A lying, sinful forehead!'' 3- THE MIRACLE OF IRON IN THE QURAN: IRON has meteoric origin in our solar system(sent down to Earth &  sunk to the core):'And We sent down iron, in which is great power, and  many benefits for humanity,...'(Quran, chapter Iron 57:25) This miracle exists in Quran's copies which consider 'Basmalah' as the  1st verse (Basmala is the sentence 'In the name of God,the mercifull' at  the head of each chapter). Thus,the verse 25 becomes 26(Iron's Atomic number). The number of verses  29 becomes 30(iron's neutrons).Chapter 57 is the core of the Quran(114  chapters). 57 is a stable isotope of iron . Iron has the second most  tightly bound nuclei(Nuclear binding energy). 4- THE FINGERPRINTS : In The following verses God mentions his ability (in judgement day) to  recreate not only the bones/skeleton after decomposition in the grave,  but more difficult than that : the tips of fingers (this refers to the  complexity of each paerson's fingerprints) : 75:3 - Does man (a disbeliever) thinks that We shall not assemble his  bones (in the hereafter)? 75:4 - Nay, We are Able to put together in perfect order the tips of his  fingers. 5-  EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE : Quran, 51:47 "And the firmament, We constructed with power and skill and verily We are expanding it. 6-  BIG CRUNCH & ANOTHER BIG BANG (Cyclic universe hypothsis): Quran, 21:104 "The Day that We roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books  ,- even as We produced the first creation, so We will also reproduce it :  a promise We have undertaken: truly shall We fulfill it. 39:67  They have not appraised Allah with true appraisal, while the earth(s)  entirely will be [within] His grip on the Day of Resurrection, and the  heavens will be folded in His right hand. Exalted is He and high above  what they associate with Him. 14:48  [It will be] on the Day the earth will be replaced by another earth,  and the heavens [as well], and all creatures will come out before Allah ,  the One, the Prevailing. 7-  Embryology: The scientific translation of the verses of embryology: Q22:5 O mankind! if you are in doubt concerning the Resurrection, then  lo! We (inform you that we ) have created you from a gamete/ovum , then  from a zygote , then from an Blastocyst/adherent , then  from a disc which is differentiated and not differentiated... ABIOGENESIS (beginning of life) IN CLAY AND EVOLUTION (of man) FROM ANOTHER SPECIES : Q23:12 And indeed We created man out of a species/progeny/life form which originated from  clay. (12) Thereafter We made him  into a Zygote  in a welcoming stable  lodging (endometrium). (13) Then We made the zygote into a Blastocyst/adherent , then We made  the Blastocyst/adherent into a disc , then We made out of the disc bones (notochord),  then We clothed the bones with muscles, and then We made him into  another creation. So Blessed is Allâh, the Best of creators ------------------------------------------------ THE SURPRISE: Adam was a modern human who was created from a female like jesus . He was not the first man : Quran 3:59 Truly, the likeness of Jesus, in God's sight, is as Adam's likeness; He created him from a gamete/ovum , then said He unto him, 'Be,' and he was being . - The three germ layers & three prenatal stages : Q39:6 He creates you in the bellies of your mothers,  creation after  creation, in a threefold darknesses. Notochord's function as axis for muscles attatchment : https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notochord Endometrium receptivity: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3409914/ 8-  THE PROTECTING FUNCTION OF EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE (from sun , meteors  ..etc): (Qur'an, 21:32) We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet still they turn away from its Signs. . The reflecting function of earth's atmosphere : [I swear] by the sky which has returning/feedback properties . (Qur'an, 86:11) 9 - PULSAR NEUTRON STARS : "( I swear ) by Heaven and The Knocker ! And what will convey to you  what The Knocker is? It is The Piercing Star ! (Qur'an, 86:1-3) " 10- THE PHENOMENA OF HYPOXIA (suffocation) IN OUTER SPACE Quran 6:125 So who God wants that He guides him, He expands his chest to the  Islam/submission (to God); And who He wants that He misguides him, He  makes his chest narrow/tight , constricted , embarrassed as if (he)  ascends in the sky . Like that God makes/puts the obscenity/punishment  on those who do not believe. 11- PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Plants begin to produce oxygen at down. Quran 81:18  And (i swear ) by the dawn when it breathes/sighs 12 - EGYPTOLOGY EXCLUSIVELY IN THE QURAN How & why the great pyramid of Giza was built ? Exclusively in The  Holy Quran: Why the pyramids were built?: The pyramids were alligned with some stars because Pharaoh of the exodus  somehow wanted to ascend or to find some celestial ways in order to  watch the god of Moses (perhaps they used to climb up the pyramid &  they also used it to project light up to the sky ): Quran 40:36 And Pharaoh said, "O Haman, construct for me a tower that I might reach the ways - 40:37  The ways into the heavens - so that I may look at the deity of Moses;  but indeed, I think he is a liar." And thus was made attractive to  Pharaoh the evil of his deed, and he was averted from the [right] way.  And the plan of Pharaoh was not except in ruin. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMhIx6QEcp0 How the pyramids were built ? : It is first discovered by Joseph Davidovits(material scientist) then  supported by  Michel Barsoum(materials science researcher) that the  blocks of the pyramids are not natural . but they are just moulded  concrete bricks of clay ,lime & water then heated.  Quran 28:38  And Pharaoh said, "O eminent ones, I have not known you to have a god  other than me. Then ignite for me, O Haman, [fire] upon the clay and  make for me a tower that I may look at the God of Moses. And indeed, I  do think he is among the liars." http://www.livescience.com/1554-surprising-truth-great-pyramids-built.html Experiment of building a pyramid by the owner of this theory: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FuJAbTmaLI 13- PLATE TECTONICS & POLES SHIFT IN THE QURAN: A . SUBDUCTION: - Sea floor spreading subducted slabs: Q15:19 And the earth-We had expanded it and CAST/THREW  anchors/stabilizers into it. - The subducted slabs in the trenches  prevent planet earth's poles  shift (crust displacement)by acting as anchors for the plates or by  distributing mass inside earth . Underground caves-rivers allow  scientific research: Q16:15 And He had CAST/THROWN anchors/stabilizers into The Earth so that  it does not shift/sway with you ; and rivers, and paths(caves), so that  you will be guided. Subducting slabs act as sea anchor: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol21/vol21_iss10/record2110.31.html Vietnam cave :   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWaKRjTbZdI B . MOUNTAINS: - True Polar Wander Hypothesis ( A Planet's shift as a response to an  unballance in the distribution of landmasses): Q 78:6-7 ''Haven't we made (planet) earth a prepared place /cradle and  mountains/landmasses as pegs/guy ropes?'' . Q21:31 And We have MADE in the earth anchors/stabilizers(mountains) so  that it should not shift   with them.  . Q41:10 And He made therein anchors/stabilizers (mountains) from above  it .Q27:61 Is He [not best] who made the planet Earth a stable place and  made within it rivers and made anchors/stabilizers FOR it...? .Q77:27 And We made lofty anchors/stabilizers(mountains) in it Surface loading & plenet stability: http://web.mit.edu/perron/www/files/Matsuyama06.pdf  The distribution of mountains as observed on planet Io : http://www.niu.edu/geology/stoddard/publications/IO/iogrlandfigs.pdf True Polar Wander hypothesis: http://earthsky.org/earth/earth-is-undergoing-true-polar-wander-scientists-say Find the correct translation here : http://islamawakened.com/quran/16/15/  14- MATHEMATICS: . The miracle of Code 19 in The Quran , an astonishing mathematical combinations beyond human capability ! : A video by Rashad Khalifa , the discoverer of this miracle himself: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-empPPtMV1o More maths: https://youtu.be/U8H7MnnXKyY Many more hints and mathematical formulas are pending to be discovered in The Quran as a gift for its readers/researchers .
Science Club (2 месяца назад)
Keanu Vernon (3 месяца назад)
Trigger warning Khan in intro bio the ectoderm is religiously colored blue and the mesoderm read
eliakim sando (3 месяца назад)
you guy do i believe to know something wrong i heard al layers come from the epiblast
Luqman Hakim (3 месяца назад)
too much missing points
sharfuddin mohammed (4 месяца назад)
The inner cell mass does not move to one end by itself it's is pushed by the in flowing uterine fluid. Missing some details brother.
sharfuddin mohammed (4 месяца назад)
16 celled stage is first called Morula not 32 celled stage. Please do proper research and Please give a little information about your qualification before starting lectures.
jerlands (4 месяца назад)
Interesting journey... thanks.
UNLOCK SCIENCE (4 месяца назад)
For more details https://youtu.be/eUufZg6Iw5s
Stewart Alan Selina (4 месяца назад)
sometimes someone just recommends these videos for saving our fking stupid embryology lectures.
HuntersHub (4 месяца назад)
Khan academy I love u baby
Mahmood Abdelkader (5 месяцев назад)
This was the best khan academy vid i've watched so far in any subject. this guy deserves a raise
mujib udeen (6 месяцев назад)
what is this shit ? pancake , syrup and You are big now and you and divided now..
Dirgham Maniar (6 месяцев назад)
Bro Morula has 16 cells
Niraj Atrey (7 месяцев назад)
Amazing awesome productive stellar .....
mohammed vijdan anjum (7 месяцев назад)
So correct me if I'm wrong but this is just for organisms that have a heavy yolk in their eggs such as reptiles(which of course including birds) and not humans
dave parga (7 месяцев назад)
are melons always spherical and are spheres always melonical?
taxsi (7 месяцев назад)
This is a very descriptive narrative and depiction of embryo-genesis, and its core event "cell differentiation". How it is coordinated, how does it happens is left unexplained? We know that science explains this by means of a further descriptive but more specific phenomena, which is "gene expression". Different gene expression for different cells, for different cells, different parts of the same DNA code is read to synthesize different proteins. But here how it is coordinated? At the very basic initial steps, how some group of cells differentiate, how throphoblasts know that they will become the outer layer cells and read relevant code from DNA and how they are located in the outer layer (or vice versa, how soon to be outer layer cells read the relevant outer yer cell code from their DNA)? The correct language for the question is "what makes" certain and more or less correct number of cells read the relevant code to form a specific part of the body or embryo? What makes this coordination possible? In this kind of courses or narratives, the speaker at least should mention that this question exists but is not addressed in this lecture.... Or question is not answered yet by science. You cannot ghost an elephant in the room.
a r u n a g u p t a (7 месяцев назад)
khanyisile tricia (7 месяцев назад)
Thanks a lot, this really helped
Vishal Agarwal (7 месяцев назад)
very helpful
Vishal Agarwal (7 месяцев назад)
very helt
Water (7 месяцев назад)
Not so informative.... It cud hv been made better!!!!
Deepa Dangol (8 месяцев назад)
thank you so much.. you saved me...
shahd ismail alqatu (8 месяцев назад)
there's a lot of missed details
Sam Harper (8 месяцев назад)
And all that happens before implantation?
Fajer njr (8 месяцев назад)
guys, for a better visual, check out the channel "embryology"... you'll thank me later
777 Legend (9 месяцев назад)
Great movie watching all the others. but got confused on the 6.29 suddenly we got the primite streak ? coming from where? how is it coming .what makes it happen.. how is it happing ????. but i tried to look it up.. and yeah science dosent even seem to know yet..100% they know its cellure reargement by the epiblast but apprently not how. As these cells move and concentrate at the posterior end of the embryo, the streak undergoes a single- to multi-layered epithelial sheet transition that makes it a macroscopically visible structure.[4] Several mechanisms, including oriented cell division, cell-cell intercalation and chemotactic cell movement,[4] have been proposed to explain the nature of the cellular movements required to form the primitive streak. kinda funny how 2-3 in the devolpement of humans and cells-
Lucija Anusic (9 месяцев назад)
I have a question if anyone can answer, does the primitive streak form along the plane that was drawn on the "pancake" complex or is it perpendicular to it?
Cyrille BERRA (9 месяцев назад)
You made something quite complex into a very simple succession of steps. I might pass my Master exam thanks to you!
pheodels w (9 месяцев назад)
what a great video
Priyanka Jha (9 месяцев назад)
Thanku so much sir. Explained very nicely..no one will dare forget this after watching this video.:)
glcmyrk (10 месяцев назад)
MELON :D This video is the best best best!
Lucky DeSilva (10 месяцев назад)
Thank you for explaining sooo nicely. With respect X X
Syed Uzair Ahmed (10 месяцев назад)
Fantastic video. Other people use terms such as "invagination" and here you are talking pancakes. Really simplifies, relates and helps understand. Cheers again.
Gemma Holman (10 месяцев назад)
Okay, so you said that the epiblasts become the ectoderm, so from what cells do mesoderm and ectoderm come from? It's unclear to me.
Ardra Achu (10 месяцев назад)
KNX (11 месяцев назад)
I thoguht mulberries were purple
Fardin Hamidi (11 месяцев назад)
This is one of the best lessons I`ve ever gotten, very good explanation with some strong ways to memorize the whole system keep doing what you´re doing
kandykean (1 год назад)
Thank you so much, this really helped!
benda Lee (1 год назад)
Please draw beforehand plz
ynlndvspsv (1 год назад)
i might got what u said wrong, but the differentiation of the embrioblast into epi- and hypoblast happens on the 8th day after fertilization, aka. after the implantation?
Ritobrato Chatterjee (1 год назад)
AWESOME . loved it, made the concepts very clear. good work !
Victoria Ezgilioglu (1 год назад)
love u like i love pancakes
Viraj J (1 год назад)
Thankyou for the video, sir.🙏🏻
M N (1 год назад)
Great; but you should've added the days as they are always asking for them!
YASER AMEEN (1 год назад)
Thank you very much for your brilliant illustration!!! Complex theory simplified!!
D P (1 год назад)
The endodermal layer does not arise from the hypoblast cells, it is from the differentiation and migration of the epiblast cells. The hypoblast actually forms the yolk sac cavity and are not part of the embryo.
David NwaChukwu, Jr. (1 год назад)
Isn’t morula 16 cell stage?
glcmyrk (10 месяцев назад)
My professor said 9 :O
Meenu Gul (1 год назад)
thankyou soo much .. it helped me alot ... ^^
Anum Athar (1 год назад)
Great explanation 👍
zehra çakıl (1 год назад)
Döner bıçağı kalp çevirmen 🙊
xooox Thanks (1 год назад)
What this lesson is missing is matching every step to the time (day) of it happening.
Mackenzie Hlesciak (1 год назад)
So does the ZP just kind of grow back after the cortical reaction or is this a modified ZP?
AHBA Shahid (1 год назад)
What is discoidal cleavage??
Spider-Man (1 год назад)
You are a legend sir!
Collins Sian (1 год назад)
thanks for the video it had given us an headache with my friends during our discussion,,,,,,,, God bless you
mian fazle razik (1 год назад)
I wish u could be my teacher.... 😘😘😘 I love my teachers...
Hithere (1 год назад)
Simple and efficient
ketty cat (1 год назад)
The miracle of embryonic development is mentioned in Holy Quran in such minute detail 1400 years ago, much of which was unknown to scientists until only recently. It mentions the first stages of life after conception, the second stage of life after conception In the Holy book, God speaks: “We created man from an extract of clay. Then We made him as a drop in a place of settlement, firmly fixed. Then We made the drop into an alaqah (leech, suspended thing, and blood clot), then We made the alaqah into a mudghah (chewed substance)…” (Quran 23:12-14)
Sean Oren (1 год назад)
Excellent. Thank you. It would be awesome of you did a video about the signaling in embryology... Hopefully you could simplify it in such a concise way too :)
Guillermo Poli (1 год назад)
Your explanation was so much better than those from the books I've read you deserve the strongest hug ever
Sarwar Ali (1 год назад)
Connor O'Neill-Dee (1 год назад)
You should use the standard colors for germ layers!
Tammy Stevenson (1 год назад)
he had me at pancake
Best Videos (1 год назад)
This is ever best biology lacture in my whole life. Delivered very simply but in a comprehensive way. Thank for uploading. Its really helpful
Anna Mccartney (1 год назад)
Oh my god! THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR THIS!!!👏👏👏👏 You saved my academic life! 😅 Now I understand much better this amazing process.😻 Thank you! Gracias! Greetings from México.😺
Manitombi Angom (1 год назад)
thanks a lot
Marcella Beatty (1 год назад)
he will also help people that are delinquent on there child support pay... He has a foreign translator Fernando so get those border brothers and sisters together for a lecture and let them know the translator knows why abortions are legal and they begin feasting at conception...
Marcella Beatty (1 год назад)
5:00 a samurai
Foe Anne (1 год назад)
morula has 16 cells not 32. but vid is great
Nothing\ (1 год назад)
It's weird to think that this has happened to every single person who lives. Yet it seems like such an alien, unfamiliar process.
Tahdick (1 год назад)
As a medical extern,i abslolutely forgot about the embryogenesis and this video helped me out alot. Keep making videos and make better doctors
Jelena (1 год назад)
how is it possible that I learn so much quicker and better online on YouTube, on a language that isn't even my first language, without flashy equipment and without teacher beside me to answer all of my questions? why are schools so bad at their job?
saved my lifee😱😍😍😍😍😍😍
prabal sharma (1 год назад)
this video is misleading...don't show anything about yolk cell (primitive to be exact) and extra embryonic mesoderms etc...!!
syed aqeel (1 год назад)
I wish we have professors like you.
Antonella9713 (1 год назад)
Guys..i need help..!in langman says that the embryoblast is formed by the epiblast and hypoblast layers! is this right? isn't the reverse? :(
Mariam Marello (1 год назад)
God bless you
Asma hdj (1 год назад)
do u have videos of embryology expliquated in french please ?? the 3rd and 4th week of developpement are very hard for me x(
Phurpa Tsering (1 год назад)
dr najeeb is d best in d wrld
tOny D (1 год назад)
morula is the 16 cell stage, not 32
cuimin mayo (1 год назад)
Excellent ! really love to watch the stuff you put on
DocSafi (1 год назад)
KHAN, the name which was used to be used for illiterate people... Luckily, we have some great Khans like you who only will to serve the humanity. wish you you more and more health and wealth to keep serving the humanity. PROUD TO BE A KHAN...
Ypherrist (4 месяца назад)
Khan is an honorary title though.
Emmie Salmelin (1 год назад)
It's a good video. But I think they should specify that this is mammal embryogenesis (maybe birds/reptiles .. not sure though). There are many ways this happens in the animal kingdom. If you google and search for how this works - you might get confused. Be sure you are studying the right kind of embryogenesis. :)
Hamza Qayyum (1 год назад)
You said that an enzyme came from the inside of the egg cell and began to digest zona pellucida that is made up of glycoprotein to stop preventing other sperm cells to enter in the egg cell. Now you are saying that zona pellucida is still present even after the formation of morulla? Plz explain
Pratyasha Singh (1 год назад)
Hamza Qayyum ... zona lysins secreted by sperm's acrosome digest a part of zona pellucida to help its penetration into the ovum to reach the nucleus otherwise the zona pellucida is still intact the contact of sperm head with fertilisation cone(i.e. an outgrowth of oocyte stimulated by contact of acrosome) initiates cortical and zona rxns. Cortical rxn causes rupture of cortical granules whereas the zona rxns make the zona pellucida impervious to 2nd sperm by destroying sperm receptors present on it
Lara Ana (1 год назад)
Life-saving video.. I was litterally amazed to how well this was explained (sry for my english)
Fatima chishti (1 год назад)
amazing...thank you sir
Bobby Love (1 год назад)
Epiblast gives rise to all 3 germ layers. Hypoblast is not the source of endoderm.
Ali (6 месяцев назад)
He said that the epiblast gives rise to all 3 germ layers at 12:00
boda doda (11 месяцев назад)
yeah, lot of youtubeducators get that wrong. wonder if its a mistake in older textbooks.
Bobby Love (1 год назад)
Epiblast gives rise to all 3 germ layers. Hypoblast is not the source of endoderm.
Pratyasha Singh (1 год назад)
Bobby Love .. there are 2 theories... one which says definitive endoderm is created by displacing hypoblast the other says hypoblast acts as endoderm
haBiBi MaLiK (1 год назад)
very good
Moe Abdallah (2 года назад)
very good video, can you do me a favour and make video on how to go back in time so I can choose a course other than medicine. Thanks :)
Doctor Ji (25 дней назад)
M M (2 месяца назад)
Really, do yourself and your unfortunate patients a favour, get out of medicine.
Alyss Heart (2 месяца назад)
lollll I am doing physiotherapy course yet I still have to learn this

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