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Language and the brain: Aphasia and split-brain patients | MCAT | Khan Academy

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Learn about language areas of the brain and the effects of damage to those parts of the brain. By Carole Yue. Created by Carole Yue. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/processing-the-environment/language/v/language-and-cognition?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/processing-the-environment/cognition/v/information-processing-model-sensory-working-and-long-term-memory?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat MCAT on Khan Academy: Go ahead and practice some passage-based questions! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s MCAT channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDkK5wqSuwDlJ3_nl3rgdiQ?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
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Текстовые комментарии (51)
Ias Howle (5 месяцев назад)
Language spelled out looks wrong
Djoudie Alexander (7 месяцев назад)
thank you so so much!!!
The Mad Hatter (8 месяцев назад)
Can someone be born with ipsilateral brain control?? And how would they act/perform at tasks?
David Kane (11 месяцев назад)
My stroke wiped out my ability to read! My ability to recognize letters and read them correctly was scrambled. Is there an aphasia type for that? Technology help me compensate and I'd be worse off if this stroke had happened before the appearance of tech tools to help me compensate.
David Kane (9 месяцев назад)
Audrie, Thanks so much for your reply and for putting a name to my veriest of Aphasia. Considering how I could have been damage by my stroke, I count myself lucky indeed to get away with Alexia. Thanks for reaching out!
Audrie Weston (9 месяцев назад)
David, there is a term for impaired reading after a stroke - Alexia. It’s encompassed in Aphasia because it typically occurs after a stroke and impacts language processing. In the case of Alexia, the brain finds it more difficult to process words when they are presented in writing, as opposed to being verbally spoken. There is also Agraphia, a language disorder in which people may find it difficult to write. I’m glad you are able to use technology to compensate for alexia. It’s also something that can be targeted in speech therapy, if that’s something you are doing!
David Kane (11 месяцев назад)
There was also less drastic speech imparement, trouble finding words, etc.
Sarah Jo (11 месяцев назад)
I have multiple types
Dr. J (11 месяцев назад)
Thx!
Derrick Lopez (1 год назад)
I have ahpisia an I just wanna know were I can get help to improve in my reading an writing
Derrick Lopez (1 год назад)
Victor Browne thank you
Victor Browne (1 год назад)
Look up the "Aphasia Institute" !
Sia M (1 год назад)
Can you please explain the "Model of single-word processing for auditory and written word perception and production. Including processes involved in picture naming." And levels of breakdown and impact? Pleeeeeease
divya (1 год назад)
Thanks . Very informative video
Tavi Sui (1 год назад)
i rarely speaks the truth but , ur voice is cute ma'am ^-^)/
Anne Flaherty (1 год назад)
excellent~! thank you
Kausar Sahebzda (1 год назад)
The best acadmy
Sabeeha Nasreen (1 год назад)
soonice tq
kudzai madziwo (1 год назад)
thank you so much
Daphne Rodriguez (1 год назад)
Great Video Daphne Cotton. INCREDIBLE THANKS YOU ●Castano BROWN FAMILY.
sowmya sharma (1 год назад)
Thank u for this video
Christofer Riche (1 год назад)
this may explain why I have trouble saying certain things or explaining myself. I've been told it's the way my brain is "wired"
C. Roxana (1 год назад)
I was given this subject as my presentation topic for my college biology class... Little did I know how fascinating this is and learned many things I wasn't aware of. Thank you for perfectly explaining it in this video!
Esaias Tong (1 год назад)
Lesions of the arcuate fasciculus are not correlated with conduction aphasia.
Carlos Luis Oberto (1 год назад)
http://www.asha.org/Glossary/Conduction-Aphasia/
Katarina Byrne (1 год назад)
You mentioned that damage to Broca's area can produce "slurred speech" - this is not a symptom of an aphasia, that's dysarthria. Dysarthria = motor speech, aphasia = cognition (ie language).
Saruko Chibi (1 год назад)
a very easy-to-understand video with brief notes. Mind sharing the name of the software you used for filming?
Milagros Lawrence (2 года назад)
I need how to sharpyngBrain in old People The Magazine gave this a dress to get this...
Earl Melvin (2 года назад)
Thank you so much for this. It has been a year since I had my stroke. Aphasia, apraxia, etc. have been very difficult for me. This video shows there are so many facets to our brain.
Michelle Morris-Phy (2 года назад)
Wow, thank you so much for clarifying things and making them easier to understand. You are an excellent educator.
jannassary (2 года назад)
fu@# ing great thumbs up
OHM-968692 (2 года назад)
Thanks a lot
D0NAR_ (2 года назад)
CGP made it better
Emmanuel Peguero (2 года назад)
Great video!!
Roby Alfahri (2 года назад)
thanks alot, this video helps me so much
專英 (2 года назад)
Language and the brain: Aphasia and split-brain patients 語言和大腦:失語症和裂腦患者 You may perceive language as one big function the brain performs. 你可能認為語言是大腦執行的一大功能。 Interestingly, though, it’s divided into a lot of sub-functions. 然而,有趣的是,它被劃分成很多子功能。 In this video, we’ll discuss how your brain speaks and understands language and what happens when those functions are disrupted. 在此影片中,我們將會討論到如何運用大腦說話和理解語言,以及,當這些功能被破壞會發生什麼事。 First, let’s go over some basic neuroanatomy. 首先,讓我們複習一些基礎的神經解剖學。 For about 90% of right-handed people, language functions are centralized in the left hemisphere of the brain. 約90%右撇子的人,語言功能都集中在大腦的左半球。 Lefties and ambidextrous folks are somewhat more likely to have language centralized in the right hemisphere, but still about 70% of them will have language centralized in the left hemisphere. 左撇子和靈巧的人更有可能有語言功能集中在右半球,但他們的語言功能仍約 有70%集中在左半球。 Within whichever hemisphere is dominant, the two main areas associated with language are Broca’s area, which helps us speak, and Wernicke’s area, which helps us understand language. 占主導地位的兩個半球內,與語言相關的兩個主要領域是Broca區,能幫助我們說話,和Wernicke區,可以幫助我們理解語言。 Broca’s area is in the frontal lobe, usually the left frontal lobe, and it’s responsible for language expression. Broca區在額葉,通常由左額葉進行處理,並負責語言表達。 When Broca’s area is damaged, people tend to have trouble producing speech. 當Broca區損壞時,人們往往會有發音的困難。 Their words become halting or slurred. 他們的言語變得緩慢或含糊不清。 This is called non-fluent aphasia, or Broca’s aphasia. 這稱作非流利失語症或Broca’s失語症。 I remember this by thinking that Broca’s aphasia means “ broken speech,” and aphasia is just any type of disorder that involves language. 我記得這個被認為是Broca失語症意味著"斷斷續續的講話",失語症只是多種類型的障礙中涉及到語言。 When Wernicke’s area, back in the temporal lobe, is damaged, you get Wernicke’s aphasia, which is quite a different pattern of behavior than you get with Broca’s aphasia. 當在顳葉後的Wernicke區被損壞時,你會得到Wernicke區失語症,這和得到Broca區失語症所表現出來的行為有很大的不同。 People have no trouble producing words—in fact, words kind of just tumble out of them—but the words that do come out don’t make any sense. 他們沒有發音的困難,事實上,他們只是把那些字講出來,但那些字是沒有任何意思的。 It’s like listening to a bunch of nonsense sentences. 就像在聽一堆毫無意義的句子。 People with Wernicke’s aphasia, which is also sometimes called” fluent aphasia,” can also have trouble understanding what other people say. 有Wernicke失語症的人有時也稱作流利失語症,對於別人所說的話有理解困難。 And when both Broca’s aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia are present, then you have something called “global aphasia,” because it globally affects language instead of only affecting a subsection of it. 當Broca失語症和Wernicke失語症都存在,就稱作全面性失語症,因為會有全面性的影響而非只有部分影響。 Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area are connected in the brain by a bundle of nerve fibers called the arcuate fasciculus. Broca區和Wernicke區在大腦中會經由一束的弓形神經束連接。 One cool thing is that this loop is also found in deaf people who know sign language. 一件有趣的事是,也在懂得手語的聾子上發現了這個環節。 So it’s not specific to a spoken language, but the brain adapts to use whatever modality is necessary for communication. 所以,它不是特定於口語,但是大腦習慣使用必要的方式來溝通。 When this connection is damaged, people experience something called “conduction aphasia.” 當這個連結被破壞時,人們會經歷傳導性失語症。 Their ability to conduct information between listening and speaking is disrupted, which makes them unable to repeat things, even though they understand what’s being said. 他們在聽力和口語之間傳達的能力被破壞,造成他們不能複誦事情,即使他們聽得懂正在說什麼。 Pretty crazy. 相當瘋狂。 And once you think about how many language-specific functions you do every day, you might wonder how many different types of aphasia there are. 一旦你思考每天有多少特定的語言功能在運作,你將得知有多少不同種類的失語症存在。 And the answer is “ a lot.” 答案是很多。 We have agraphia, which is the inability to write, anomia, which is the inability to name things, and other specific difficulties in reading, spelling, grammar, pronunciation—all sorts of things you may not even realize that you do effortlessly with a healthy brain. 有失寫症,即沒有書寫的能力,命名失能症,即無法為事物命名,還有閱讀、拼音、文法、發音等具體的困難,各式各樣的事情,你甚至不知道你有健康的大腦不費力氣的完成這些事。 But Broca’s apahasia and Wernicke’s aphasia are the most common. 但是,Broca失語症和Wernicke失語症是最常見的。 Language is just one example of how our brain works in general. 語言只是大腦如何運作最常見的一個例子。 Big tasks are subdivided into small tasks, which are then spread around in different parts of the brain. 大任務被分成小任務,然後散佈在大腦不同的部位。 And this can actually be a good thing, because it means if you have very localized or very specific brain damage, then you probably won’t completely lose your ability to perform some highly important function like communication. 而這實際上是一件好事,因為這意味著如果你有非常局部的或非常特定的腦部損傷,那麼你可能不會完全失去你執行一些非常重要的功能,例如溝通。 In fact, when functions are divided like that, it’s easier for your brain to adapt. 事實上,當功能被那樣劃分,它更容易讓你的大腦適應。 For example, when people have strokes that affect the left hemisphere of their brain, they may have trouble speaking or something right after the stroke, but over time and with proper therapy, some of those people are able to retrain other speech-related parts of their brain by creating new connections between neurons. 例如,當人們有中風影響到左半腦,他們可能有說話障礙,或者影響到右腦,但是,隨著時間的推移和適當的治療,其中的一些人都能夠透過創建神經元之間的新連接重新訓練他們大腦其他語音相關的部分。 Building these connections, in combination with some recovery of the originally damaged part of the brain, can help these people speak again with at least some degree of fluency. 建立這些連接,結合一些大腦原來損壞已恢復的部分,可以幫助這些人講話時能再有至少某種程度的流暢性。 And the brain’s ability to adapt and move functions to new parts is called neural plasticity, or synaptic plasticity. 而大腦適應並移動新部分的功能的能力稱為神經可塑性或突觸可塑性。 The neurons are plastic, or flexible enough, to learn new routes and connections, thus allowing undamaged parts of the brain to take over functions that the damaged parts previously performed. 神經元是塑料,或具有足夠的靈活性,學習新的路線且連接,從而允許大腦未損壞的部分接管以前執行的受損部位的功能。 Even with perfectly functioning hemispheres, you might still have trouble naming objects. 即使有充分發揮功能的兩半球,你可能仍然有為物體命名的困難。 This can happen if communication between the hemispheres is disrupted by severing the corpus callosum, which is a band of nerve fibers that connects your brain’s two hemispheres. 這可能發生在如果胼胝體被切斷兩半球之間的溝通就會中斷,胼胝體是一堆的神經纖維用來連結大腦的兩半球。 This creates what’s called a split-brain patient, because your brain is now split into two parts. 這形成了所謂的腦裂患者,因為你的腦袋現在已被分成兩部分。 People used to have to do this sometimes as a treatment for seizures, but in addition to helping with that problem, this surgery creates some pretty interesting side effects in terms of language. 人們曾經把這一點當作治療癲癇的方法,但除了幫助這一個問題,這種手術造成語言某些有趣的副作用。 So assuming that language is centralized in the left hemisphere, this means that the right side of your brain can’t connect to the language side. 所以,假設語言集中在左半球,這意味著你的大腦右側無法連結到語言方面。 So anything that you perceive in the right side of your brain can’t be named or dealt with in terms of language. 所以任何你察覺到的事情無法被你的右側大腦命名或有語言方面的處理。 Now, you may have heard before that your brain has what’s called a contralateral organization, meaning that information that you perceive in your left visual fied gets processed by the right side of your brain and vice-versa. 現在,你之前可能已聽過你的大腦有個叫做對側組織的結構,意思是你左半邊的視覺區所察覺到的訊息會經由大腦右側取得處理,反之亦然。 So let’s think about what that means for a split-brain patient. 所以,讓我們來想想什麼是腦裂患者。 If your see an object on your left, and it gets sent to your right hemisphere, you won’t be able to name it. 假如你看到一個物體在你左邊,接著就會將影像傳到右半球,你不能夠為它命名。 You’d still be able to pick it up with your left hand, because again, your right hemisphere is controlling your left-side motor neurons, but you’d have to kind of turn your head so that the object would be in your right visual field before the language part of your brain would have any access to it. 你仍然可以把它撿起來用你的左手,因為,你的右半球控制你的左側運動神經元,但你要轉動你的頭,這樣物體將會在你的右側視野區在大腦語言區有任何連結之前。 Now, when I say the right visual field, that doesn’t mean just your right eye. 現在,當我說右側視野,這並不完全意味著你的右眼。 It means the right side of your body, which you can view with half of each eye. 意思是你的右側身你兩個眼睛都可以看。 So there you go. 這樣就可以了。 Lots of pretty cool implications for how our brain is organized and subdivided in terms of language. 有很多很酷的影響影響著我們的大腦組織和細分語言的部分。
Bana xxx (2 года назад)
thank you!
Manel Dhm (3 года назад)
Great video! Thanks! More videos please!!
Miss Eve (3 года назад)
may i demand more videos from you? :D
Miss Eve (3 года назад)
thanks.. great and wonderful video.. it helps me to understand about aphasia better
Treva Bugg (3 года назад)
great video. Thank you
Nova Sanjaya (3 года назад)
Simply, clearly.. Very helpful
hhguitars (3 года назад)
Really wonderful video. Great job :)
Jessi Hurd (3 года назад)
This is a great explanation, especially for those who suffer from aphasia.  A family member had a stroke several years ago and suffers from aphasia, she has been fighting ever since to understand what happened to her and to be able to explain to others.  Having aphasia makes this very difficult.  Videos like this are very helpful, so thank you!
Millie Cookie (3 года назад)
Thank you - you're really good at explaining all this
Chezyl Ling (3 года назад)
Excellent! Thank you for that concised knowledge and information you shared to us. :-)
Marco V (3 года назад)
Pretty impressive. Amazing job!
Monica K (4 года назад)
awesome, you made this so simple!
Mia Lopez (4 года назад)
I don`t get it, if you`re a split brain patient, how come your hemispheres can control the contralateral parts of your body? Motor commands get sent from the (for example) right hemisphere to the left side of your brain through the corpus callosum, right? 
Johara H. MALKI (1 год назад)
No it doesn't, your motor commands don't go through your corpus callosum, It is just like that your left hemisphere controls the right side of your body contralaterally because motor fibers (which carry the motor commands from your brain) cross to the opposite side in their way down to the spinal cord and to be specific this crossing occurs (in the medulla of the brain-stem) has nothing to do with the corpus callosum which is just a group of fibers that allows your two hemispheres to communicate with each other, I know your comment is 2 yrs ago but I hope I helped even though it's late.
Al Gburi (5 лет назад)
Very interesting!

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