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Topics covered include: schizophrenia, role of dopamine in the development of psychosis, dopamine pathways in the brain (Mesolimbic, Mesocortical, Nigrostriatal, Tuberoinfundibular), positive & negative symptoms of schizophrenia, dopamine & serotonin receptors, mechanism of action and side effects of antipsychotic drugs (1st generation typical & 2nd generation atypical). Drugs mentioned include; Haloperidol, Fluphenazine, Prochlorperazine, Trifluoperazine, Chlorpromazine, Aripiprazole, Clozapine, Lurasidone, Olanzapine, Quetiapine, Risperidone, and Ziprasidone.
Sychiatry is Pseudo Pscience. HARM is the middle word in PsychopHARMacology. These are torture drugs of permanent harm. There are no therapeutic effects or any side effects; only toxicity spectra. Psychiatry is a criminal enterprise that has deceived and silenced government by it's craft. Psychiatry is not science. Psychiatry is not medicine. Psychiatry is an activity of fortune seeking soldiers and greedy witches. One who first sets mind or hand to the practice of Psychiatry has abandoned the value of "Do No Harm".
"The higher affinity of clozapine for D4 than for D2 receptors led to the speculation
that the superior clinical profile of this drug was due to D4 receptor blockade
(Van Tol et al. 1991). However, several typical antipsychotic drugs, including
haloperidol, have similar affinity for D2 and D4 receptors (Roth et al. 1995),
whereas several atypical drugs, including quetiapine and amisulpride, have very
low D4 affinity, suggesting that D4 affinity per se does not confer therapeutic
efficacy or low EPS liability. Moreover, several clinical trials with D4 selective
antagonists failed to show antipsychotic efficacy (Bristow et al. 1997; Corrigan
et al. 2004; Kramer et al. 1997)" Source: "Current Antipsychotics" by Gerhard Gross & Mark A. Geyer eds., 2012 page 35-36.
Is there more dopamine in the mesocortical pathway which is why there is less negative symptoms when taking Atypical antipsychotics?
And theres less risk of Extra Pyramidial Side Effects because of more Dopamine in the striatial pathway?
Can someone clarify my brains fried.
Atypicals block seratonin receptors causing Dopamine to increase. And this Dopamine attaches to D2 receptor but removed quickly.
Attaches and go! And this might give the similar function of normal level of dopamine. Dopamine is more but action is less!
Is there more dopamine in the mesocortical pathway which is why there is less negative symptoms when taking Atypical antipsychotics? I guess there is something to do with antagonist effects on 5HT2A receptor.
There is less risk of Extra Pyramidal Side Effects because of more Dopamine in the striatial pathway? Atypical antipsychotics has less suppression effects on migrostriatal pathway due to less affinity on dopamine receptor. (That's my understanding, not 100% sure it's accurate)
Negative symptoms are incredibly hard to treat and can often appear similar to extra-pyrimidal side effects from first generation antipsychotics (usually in people taking these via depots) or from sedation on olanzapine or clozapine. Amisulpride is a 2nd generation with (I believe) some loose evidence for improving negative symptoms but it's still a tricky one.
Positive symptoms refer to an excess or distortion of normal functions (hallucinations and delusions). Negative symptoms refer to a decrease or absence of normal behavior (lack of motivation, restrictions in emotional and verbal expressiveness, social disengagement)
Your videos are always so great and give a great overview... Giving all the relevant information tht we need to know... If u could.. please please please make a video on anti epileptic drugs... Thank you!!😊
Antidepressants are medications that can help relieve symptoms of depression, social anxiety disorder, anxiety disorders, seasonal affective disorder, and dysthymia, or mild chronic depression, as well as other conditions.
They aim to correct chemical imbalances of neurotransmitters in the brain that are believed to be responsible for changes in mood and behavior.
Depression Medications (Antidepressants)
These are the most commonly prescribed type of antidepressant.
Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are used to treat major depression, mood disorders, and possibly but less commonly attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders, menopausal symptoms, fibromyalgia, and chronic neuropathic pain.
SNRIs raise levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, two neurotransmitters in the brain that play a key role in stabilizing mood.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants. They are effective in treating depression, and they have fewer side effects than the other antidepressants.
SSRIs block the reuptake, or absorption, of serotonin in the brain. This makes it easier for the brain cells to receive and send messages, resulting in better and more stable moods.
They are called "selective" because they mainly seem to affect serotonin, and not the other neurotransmitters.